Wednesday, June 24, 2020

Indian Watch Industry - Free Essay Example

1 ELECTRONIC WATCHES 1. 1 GENERAL Electronic Watches were introduced in the world market in the early seventies. They came to India in 1979 but had to be withdrawn due to problems with the product. HMT Ltd (HMT) introduced its electronic watches in 1981 and was followed by Hyderabad Allwyn Limited (Allwyn). Organisations such as Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu (ELCOT), Semi Conductor Complex Ltd. (SCL), etc. introduced watches but were not successful. By mid eighties many smaller companies, originally manufacturing mechanical watches, diversified into electronic watches. In 1987 Titan Watches Ltd. (Titan) ajoint venture ofTata Sons and Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation entered the market and shortly established itself as a major manufacturer. 1. 2 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE The electronic watch industry is dominated by HMT, Allwyn and Titan. They command about 80% share of the organised sector. Therefore, the study concentrates on these manufacturers, though issues pe rtaining to smaller companies are addressed. The installed capacity of the industry is 10. 8 million pieces. A large unit, Indo French Times, with a capacity of nearly 2. 0 million pieces is lying idle due to some internal problems among the promoters. The production at present from the industry is around 6 million watches. While HMT and Titan operate at 70% 80% capacity, others work at very low capacity. In the case of Allwyn, the company is facing various problems. Titan Timex has just completed one year and is still in its gestation phase. The other small companies work at low capacities as their market reach is limited and are not able to compete with the big companies. In terms of importance in the market, Titan has a share of about 58%, HMT 29%, Allwyn 5. 5% and 7. 5% with others. However, including mechanical watches the market shares are : HMT 63%, Titan 18%, Allwyn 8% and others 11%.

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Treblinka Reflection - 1018 Words

Treblinka, 1941 - one of the events in history during the Holocaust that will never be forgotten by the Jews. It is one of those moments where Jews come together in the hardest of times to create, in a sense, peace amongst themselves. Not only did the Holocaust affect the Jews physically and mentally at the time, but it also greatly impacted their lives after the horror. Some victims of the Holocaust, the worst atrocity committed in humankind’s history, find it extremely difficult to open up and talk about their past because they dont want to remember any part of it. However, most survivors choose to share their stories with the younger generation in order to pass them onto future ones. Despite the torture and cruelty that the survivors†¦show more content†¦The German police chief lined them up and began transporting everyone to the extermination camp in Treblinka. As they lined up to board the trains, a Nazi officer stoped in front of Isaac and told him to get out of the line. He was paralyzed with fear as he watched his mother, sister, and two beautiful nieces board the cattle wagons. The door slammed shut on them and the lines of people continued to move forward onto the next wagon. Somehow he won a ticket to live that day and knew he should get out of there fast. But just ahead of him, he saw Rosa - the beautiful, kind, selfless girl from his building. Isaac realized he must act no matter what the cost. He mustered up all the confidence left in him and told the officer, â€Å"that’s my sister. I want to be with her.† The Nazi approached Rosa and asked if Isaac was her brother. She said yes and, sure enough, the Nazi allowed her to get out of line and leave with Isaac. Later on, they survived together working as slaves in an ammunition factory for 4 years. That line to Treblinka was not the last time they escaped death, but the hope they found was able to put all their miseries aside. Rosa never once doubted the true love they h ad for each other and was, therefore, eager to get married in the ghetto despite the risk they would be taking. She was confident that they would survive and she is stillShow MoreRelatedEssay about A Glimpse at the Holocaust 978 Words   |  4 PagesIt entailed hard physical labor, tiny rations of food, prisoners slept three or more people per crowded wooden bunk without mattresses or pillows and torture and death were frequent. There were six extermination camps: Chelmno, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, Majdanek, and most infamous, Auschwitz. Majdanek and Auschwitz served as both concentration camps and extermination camps. Auschwitz was the largest concentration camp. It is estimated that about 1.1 million people were killed there. The JewishRead MoreEssay about Extermination Camps2646 Words   |  11 PagesBelzec), and Treblinka (northwest of Sobibor). The Treblinka camp, capable of fitting over 4,000 persons into its massive chambers, murdered between 900,000 and 1.2 million Jews. Gassings were finally halted in August 1943 as Auschwitz and Zyklon-B became more effective in carrying out Nazi atrocities. The Sobibor extermination camp ended its gassings a few months later. Many Jewish uprisings occurred at these two camps, leading to the death of one prominent SS guard Max Bialas of Treblinka. Ukranian

Monday, May 18, 2020

A Brief History Of Field Hockey Essay - 1949 Words

Introduction A Brief History Field hockey originated about 4000 years ago (iSport, 2016). Ancient drawings were found by archaeologists in the Beni Hasan tombs in the Nile Valley in Egypt of men playing a simpler version of the game (Man, 2016). In the middle ages various â€Å"hockey-like games† emerged in different European countries, â€Å"Cambuca† in England, â€Å"Shinty† in Scotland, â€Å"Jeu de mail† in France and â€Å"Het kolven† in the Netherlands (iSport, 2016). The modern hockey we know today was formed in the mid-1800s in England (BC, 2016). The Rules The rules of field hockey are very similar to the rules of soccer except that players must use their sticks instead of their feet to play the ball (Federation, 2015). There are 11 players on a team made up of a goalkeeper, defenders, midfielders and forwards, the only player on the field who is allowed to use their feet and hands as well as their stick is the goalkeeper (Federation, 2015). Probably the key rules differential between field hockey and soccer lies with there being no offside rule in field hockey allowing for an extremely fast, potentially high scoring and exciting game. The Game Field Hockey is an eleven aside game played on a pitch 100 yards by 60 yards with a ball which has a 23cm circumference (Federation, 2015). Each player has a stick with a rounded head to play the ball with and the objective is to score goals by putting the ball in the opposing team’s goal. Sticks are anywhere between 28 inches and 39 inchesShow MoreRelatedTaking a Look at Hurling812 Words   |  3 Pagesthe worlds oldest and fastest paced sport in history. Its roots have prehistoric origins and have been played for over 3,000 years, even older than recorded history of Ireland, which is its national game of play. The history itself of hurling is longer than the Bible and often unclear. Nonetheless hurling is an incredible sport full of rich history and a truly rigorous sport. Since hurling is not a well-known sport to us Americans, I’m going to give a brief background of the sport and how it is playedRead MoreSports-Cultural Comparison2563 Words   |  11 Pagesof coverage those main sports receive, Americans are sometimes unaware of what other cultures have to offer. Whether they are being played, watched, read about, or dreamed about, sports are everywhere, as are the cultural differences within them. A brief look at five different sports will reveal just a few of these differences, ranging from variations in rules to sports that are beginning to gain popularity to sports that are almost completely unknown in the United States, as well as show the effectsRead MoreEssay about Walla Walla University and Oregon Institute University927 Words   |  4 Pagessports offered but the different levels they have them in allows a lot more access then some of the bigger government owned schools. Here is the list I have compiled of sports played at WWU: Badm inton, Basketball, Football (non-tackle), Gymnastics, Ice Hockey, Racquetball, Soccer, Softball, Table Tennis, Tennis, And yes there is Volleyball. WWU is a SDA school so competition and sports are not the highest thing on their agenda. This shows in some of the other activities provided. Campus Ministries, ChoralRead MoreOutliers : By Malcolm Gladwell1917 Words   |  8 Pagesroster of professional hockey players in 2007. Malcolm describes it as follows, â€Å"Here is the player roster of the 2007 Medicine Hat Tigers. Take a close look and see if you can spot anything strange about it† (Gladwell, 21). This quote is followed by a chart of the birthdays and names of all of the players. Later in this chapter Malcolm uses this data and replaces the names of the players with their birthdays to describe a hockey play to show the correlation between successful hockey players and when theyRead MoreRecent Epidemiological Studies Have Linked Mild Traumatic1509 Words   |  7 Pagesi s a tool used for the sideline evaluation of athletes who suffer a head injury. The SAC measures orientation, immediate memory, concentration, delayed recall, neurologic screening, and exertional maneuvers. SAC also includes a graded checklist, a brief neurologic examination, and records the presence of post-traumatic and retrograde amnesia. The validity of SAC in the absence of baseline score is uncertain. The Post-Concussion Symptom Scale and Graded Symptom Checklist uses a seven-point scale includingRead MoreGlobal Business Cultural Analysis Barbados Essay2833 Words   |  12 Pagesthe nice weather and can sponsor sporting events all year round. In the last ten years the island has hosted several sporting events such as cricket and field hockey. The government had two objectives in sporting tourism, first to build or renovate sporting facilities in order for the Barbadian athletes to play with other countries in field hockey as well as cricket and second was to have tourists to arrive all year round whether for vacation, conference or sporting event. This way income comes inRead MoreSports : The Implications Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries1797 Words   |  8 Pages Concussions in Contact Sports: The Implications of Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries in Young Football Players. Marcus Grant Fanshawe College From the inches that make up a yard, to the ice that hockey players skate on; the fast-paced world of contact sports is becoming an increasingly popular area of neurological study. When a player sustains an obvious injury such as a broken arm or even a simple bloody nose, effective diagnosis and treatment can be implemented to ensure he or sheRead MoreSports17369 Words   |  70 Pages Introduction Conceived as a supplement to Sportscasters/Sportscasting: Principles and Practices, this collection of exercises adds to the pedagogical mix. Following the outline of a broad approach to understanding the topic—which includes the history, economics, audience, media, sociology, practicality, and future concerns of sports and sportscasting, it has this general outline: Chapter l. Introduction to the study of sportscasters and sportscasting Chapter 2. The historical development of sportsRead MoreSports17363 Words   |  70 Pages Introduction Conceived as a supplement to Sportscasters/Sportscasting: Principles and Practices, this collection of exercises adds to the pedagogical mix. Following the outline of a broad approach to understanding the topic—which includes the history, economics, audience, media, sociology, practicality, and future concerns of sports and sportscasting, it has this general outline: Chapter l. Introduction to the study of sportscasters and sportscasting Chapter 2. The historical development of sportsRead MoreIn What Ways Did Sport Reflect Amercian Society in the 19th Century2054 Words   |  9 Pagesthese problems will never go away. So is it wrong to judge America for its sporting/sociological crimes of the past? When looking at American society now it is still divided between sports which are seen as black and white, white sports such as ice hockey played in the northern states, and NASCAR in the southern states, black players are few and far between while Basketball is predominantly fille d with black players. The truth is sport will always divide, the most recent divide in sport has come with

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Speech Anti Hate Speech - 839 Words

In 2010 during the funeral of U.S. Marine Lance Cpl. Matthew A. Snyder a group of protesters from Westboro Baptist Church of Topeka, Kansas appeared at the cemetery, carrying anti-gay signs and shouting anti-gay slogans. The late U.S. Marine’s father, Albert Snyder, later sued the protesters for inflicting emotional distress to himself and his grieving family and won a jury award. The protest is one of many examples of hate speech, which is defined by Merriam-Webster dictionary as â€Å"speech expressing hatred at a particular group of people.† In some countries, like Germany, hate speech is a crime that is punishable by fines and years in prison. In the United States, however, hate speech is protected by the First Amendment. Due to recent†¦show more content†¦In his Ted Talk, â€Å"A conservatives plea: Lets work together† he speaks, among other things, about how and why he became conservative, even though he grew up in a liberal family. His speech does n’t even mention race, gender or anything like that. He explains that he became conservative mostly because he believes that Republicans have a better solution to poverty. So, yes, there are conservatives who use their opportunities to speak only to express their hatred towards particular groups of people, but there are also those who only want to speak about issues that are important to them, and sometimes solutions to those issues. Of course the misunderstandings around hate speech don’t end there. Those in favor of criminalizing hate speech often cite other western countries where hate speech is already punishable by law. Most conspicuous example being Canada, where section 319 subsection 2 of the Criminal Code explicitly states that willful promotion of hatred, other than in private conversation, may result in prison sentence of two years. What often seems to be left out is subsection (3) where defenses for this law are described, one of them being â€Å"No person shall be convicted of an offence under subsection (2)†¦ if the statements were relevant to any subject of public interest, the discussion of which was for the public benefit, and if on reasonable grounds he believed them to be true.† So, while yes, some countries do have laws prohibiting hate speech,Show MoreRelatedFree Speech vs Hate Speech Essay1647 Words   |  7 PagesFree Speech vs. Harmful Hate Speech Freedom of speech is instilled at the beginning of the Bill of Rights and it allows citizens of the United States to express their opinions without being afraid of what might happen to them, much like in other countries. Many times people are directly or indirectly harmed by others’ actions that are considered a right under the freedom of speech clause. Though, some people worry that if we do not allow for complete freedom of speech, it is hard to figure outRead MoreThe Broad Term Of Freedom1646 Words   |  7 Pageslegal one and on this essay I am going to focus on free speech. As The First Amendment says â€Å"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances† (Cornell Law). Following this, I believe everyone is entitled to their free speech, but as flawed humans being we always cross the lineRead MoreProtecting The Rights Of Minority Groups1538 Words   |  7 Pageshowever, being a liberal society also means that there ought to be a responsibility to protect vulnerable minorities from being harmed by hate speech. As a result of competing rights, the state often faces the difficult task of determining when one right trumps the other. In this essay, I will discuss and defend the reasons why we must restrict certain types of hate speech – the kind that assaults our dignity, and is harmful. Moreover, I will discuss and defend why we must protect the rights of minorityRead More Cyberspace Hate Propaganda and Internet Censorship Essay1244 Words   |  5 PagesCyberhate - Hate Propaganda and Internet Censorship The Internet is an ideal medium for hate groups, such as neo-Nazis, because of the mass exposure, inexpensiveness, uncensored nature and ease of publishing offered. The Internet allows hate groups to target a broad audience: impressionable children are the most vulnerable. Attempts at censorship fail because of the international nature of the Internet, and to a lesser extent, free speech contentions. Instead, the freedom of speech exercised byRead MoreFree Speech Should Be A Limit1348 Words   |  6 PagesAmendment, because free speech is its own best antidote† (A First Amendment Junkie,19). Free speech is best refuted by itself because if someone doesn’t like a certain opinion, then they can reciprocate their opinion. In order for free speech to be refuted, someone needs to exercise their right of free speech and refute it. Jacoby is writing in the mid-to-late 70s, when the freedom of speech was in debate. Even more so now, people are arguing and misinterpreting free s peech in the First AmendmentRead MoreHate Crime : A Crime Based On Those Matter1495 Words   |  6 PagesWhen someone hears the words â€Å"hate crime† they get a goosebumps type of feeling. Reason because the thought of committing a crime based on certain aspects that one might not agree with is seen as absurd. In the dictionary the word hate crime is defined as â€Å"a crime motivated by racial, sexual, or other prejudice, typically one involving violence.† This definition makes us think that why would anyone commit a crime based on those matter? Do they bother someone that much that someone is a differentRead MorePre Nazi Holocaust And The Civil War1181 Words   |  5 PagesJohn Downing asks several tough questions to the believers of more speech: â€Å"What was the ‘healing antibiotic’ [(referring to more speech)] after the 1838 Cherokee Trail of Tears†¦Why will dialogue occur? What kind of dialogue?† (Downing 177), and later, â€Å"..wh ere is the ‘more speech’ during the centuries of slavery†¦Was the Civil War fought simply because Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth†¦and their relatively few supporters spoke† (Downing 183). He also gives the example of pre-Nazi Germany, describeRead More Hate Crime Laws Essay1378 Words   |  6 PagesI strongly support hate crime laws. Now, before I dive into this very controversial subject, I should probably define what hate crime laws are so you will have a better understanding of what I am talking about. As I have understood it, hate crime laws are laws that protect certain minorities or groups from bias motivated violence and harassment, and also more harshly punish people that commit these crimes against them. As I started to do my research on hate crime laws I beganRead More Censorship and the Internet Essay1213 Words   |  5 Pages Some believe this is an infringement of free speech, while others find censorship of the internet a necessary evil in today’s cyber world. When you take an in-depth look at what is readily available on the internet it should make you wonder what should be available and what should not; however, we must always understand the information that is available on the internet can be a valid source of entertainment, education and an example of free speech. The entertainment value of the internet is everRead MoreEssay on Hate Groups on the Internet3671 Words   |  15 Pages The Web of Hate Technology has provided our society with numerous innovations that have been created to improve the quality of life on a daily basis. One such innovation is the Internet. The access to a wide variety of information is perhaps the most valuable tool, as well as the most important tool, that we have entering the twenty-first century. There are virtually no limits on how much can be achieved through the use of the Internet. This is not

Relationship of Beatrice and Benedick in Act IV Sc Essay Example For Students

Relationship of Beatrice and Benedick in Act IV Sc Essay ene I of Much Ado About NothingAct IV scene i is a turning point for Beatrice and Bene*censored*. At the beginning of the play they both pronounce their desire to never marry. However, at this point in the play the two say that they are in love, when unbeknownst to them they have been tricked into loving each other. The scene after the wedding in Act IV scene i is the first one where the two have been alone together since they have both heard their friends talking. The turning point comes when Bene*censored* decides to stay with Beatrice who is helping Hero, instead of leaving with the other men. In this scene we begin to see how Bene*censored* has begun to shift his loyalties from Claudio to Beatrice. When Bene*censored* pronounces his love to Beatrice by saying â€Å"By this hand, I love thee† (324-325) she responds by telling him that he should use his hand for something other than swearing his love; he should use it to kill Claudio for believing the lies about Hero and leaving her at the altar. The sharp contrast between Hero and Beatrice is what sets this scene into motion. Hero is a meek woman who does not challenge the rules of society. Beatrice knows that the way that women are treated is wrong and she does what she can about it, such as using her words. However, she needs Bene*censored*s’ help in order to achieve her plan of getting revenge on Claudio for Hero. Throughout this play Beatrice keeps saying what she would do if she were a man. In this scene Beatrice asks Bene*censored* to kill Claudio because he is a man. She may love him, but at this point she is only trying to persuade him to help her, she is not thinking about her love for him. The way that this scene is set up gives Beatrice the upper hand, because she knows what she wants (Bene*censored* to kill Claudio) and what she feels (perhaps the beginning of a love for Bene*censored*, but more likely, a strong desire for revenge). The fact that Beatrice is in control in of this situation is ironic because the man is the one who would usually be in control of any situation of that time. However, Beatrice is using her only weapon, words, to persuade Bene*censored* to help her, it is giving the illusion that she has more power than she truly does. When Bene*censored* agrees to challenge Claudio, Beatrice achieves a small victory. She has used her weapon (her words) to the best of her a bility and she has won. It is at this point that Beatrice allows herself to show her feelings for Bene*censored*. While it might be true that Beatrice and Bene*censored* do have feelings for each other that were prodded by their friends, they must have had these feelings for a while in order to show them. Bene*censored* was afraid of rejection and the stories that he heard his friends tell gave Bene*censored* enough courage to take the next step and show his love for Beatrice. Beatrice, however, is testing Bene*censored* in this scene to see if he loves her enough to get revenge on Claudio that she feels that Hero deserves. It is only once Bene*censored* agrees to help Beatrice that she shows Bene*censored* that she does have feelings for him. Bibliography:

A Case Study free essay sample

A case study submitted by a student involves problems that crop up in a dormitory kitchen. The facts of the case include the notion that there were about a dozen workers in a cafeteria and that for quite awhile, no one is overworked and it is generally agreed that the food is good. The cafeteria worked in an organized fashion and menus were simply repeated. Most of the workers were middle aged or older and had no young children at home to tend to. Many of the workers were women, attended the same church and would cover for each other in the event that one of the workers was ill.In fact, it was a desirable situation and the people got along very well with one another. There was no air conditioning, or dishwashers, and no modern conveniences in general. Everything changed in 1975 when the dorm was rebuilt and the kitchen was also given an overhaul. We will write a custom essay sample on A Case Study or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Yet, while the employees of the Old dorm kitchen were retained, an additional ten employees were added and a more significant structure was implemented. There was an emphasis on quantity and everything seemed to have expanded. With new schedules, the women rarely saw one another.Negative feelings emerged as this small dorm kitchen grew from feeding thirty to three hundred and the old workers were not satisfied with the quality of the food. Another concern had been in regard to one of the new employees who was hired for the morning shift. She was loud and disruptive and so obnoxious that two of the workers threatened to quit if she were to stay. The morning crew consisted primarily of the old workers and the new people were scheduled for the evening. It made sense because the old crew was used to early hours. However, that meant that the new crew was largely inexperienced in that facility.Some of the new workers were inexperienced in the field as well. Also, the evening crew did not like the fact that they were made to clean up whereas the morning crew did not have such duties. There were also problems with the part-time student workers who mostly washed the dishes; although they were aware of the management problem, they basically did their jobs and tried to leave quickly. However, at some point in time, it had become apparent that things are not well in the Iris Hall Dormitory Kitchen. While things had gone smoothly for ears, change had created a situation where there is almost a merging of corporate cultures.While this is not a merger, the fact that two crews surfacedone with experienced workers at the facility and one with all new workerscreated much tension. By not having time to work together, each shift does notice what the other shift had not completed and in some way, each crew is pitted against the other. It is easy to blame the other shift for work that had gone unfinished. Another problem is the simple fact that the change has taken a toll on a work community that was tightly knit. Expansion means change and progress is something that many workers who have been set in their ways, resist. It is understandable.These workers enjoyed the quaint atmosphere and the flexibility of their jobs. They could cook, create menus, make decisions and trade places. With new management and two shifts, there were other concerns. Also, the addition of a disruptive worker in the morning is not conducive to creating the environment necessary for the cafeteria to do well. The situation requisites that some decisions be made. What needs to be done regarding the problem employee, the problem in respect to who reforms clean up tasks, the poor morale of the first shift and the fact that the second shift is not properly trained?The newly hired cafeteria supervisor is responsible for making all of the decisions in respect to the named problems. The causes of the overall situation may be attributable to the fact that the facility had undergone expansion. This accounts for the poor morale. However, the fact that the second shift is not properly trained and that there is confusion in terms of who performs what task is related to the lack of proper organization. The supervisor needs to employ techniques in order to alleviate the problems that should be easily resolved.Morale is a bit more difficult, particularly because the supervisor is new. Finally, the fact that one problem employee has arisen may have to do with the fact that she was put on a schedule with employees who have seniority. The fact that she is bossy is perhaps a misconception as the original workers may expect her to act as if she is a subordinate. The reality is that she may have just as much a right to make suggestions and change the way in which something is done as any other cafeteria worker. Still, this is a serious problem that needs to be addressed.One major factor that is behind much of the problems is the fact that there is little in the way of organization. The supervisor has not scheduled specific duties, or made an attempt to split up some of the cleaning tasks. Also, if more directives were provided, there would be less leeway in terms of how things are done and the problem employee may not stand out as much. Also, if the operation were more organized the second shift staff would have been properly trained. This factor has a significant impact on the situation and all take holders should be concerned. A Case Study free essay sample A study of a computer operating systems upgrade project for AK Ltd. a manufacturer of data storage devices. This report identifies both the technical and human areas associated the selection of the new operating system for the computer. It describes a survey that was conducted to assess employee feelings about the old system and assess potential reactions to the new system. The paper analyzes the differences between the companys existing UNIX-based Linux system and the proposed Windows XP system. Table of Contents Abstract Introduction Project Definition and Objectives Literature Review Factors Involved in Choosing an Operating System Traditional System Life Cycle System Needs Information Archiving and Data Storage Security Types of Operating Systems Choosing an Operating System Unix, Linux and Windows The History of Unix and Windows The Linux Operating System The Windows Operating System Other Operating Systems The True Cost of an Operating System A System Analysis Types of Information by Department Information Isolation and Integration Perceived Security Needs Computer Literacy and User Questionnaire User Survey Results Final Conclusions and Recommendations How This Will Improve the Company Training Implementation Strategy Recruitment and Selection Overcoming Resistance to Change Self Critique Works Cited APPENDIX I: Windows vs. We will write a custom essay sample on A Case Study or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Linux APPENDIX II: User Survey Changing the computer systems at A Ltd. is only one of the major changes caused by its massive expansion. The company is undergoing many policy and structural changes as well. The command structure of the company is being re-structured and the managerial and departmental hierarchy is changing as well. A Ltd. began as a small family business and is now on the verge of becoming a world player. The same strategies and structure that worked as a small business no longer work efficiently for a large corporation.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Solution HBS Case Study Kent Chemical free essay sample

Could the KGB Concept Have Worked? This paper provides a sample analysis and solution to the fictive Harvard Business School case study on Kent Chemical Products (ICP), an 191 7 founded Ohio-based global leading chemical company. ICP produces plastic additives and further specialty chemicals and tats Americas largest supplier in this sector with revenues of $2. 2 billion in the year 2007 (Bartlett Wining, 201 2, p. 1). The case is set in July 2008, about the time when the recent global recession had been looming. The companys situation is considered from the perspective of Kent Chemical Internationally (KC, a ICP subsidiary comprising the international divisions) President Luis Morale, who is the major decision maker in the case. Other key decision makers are Kent Chemical Products CEO and Chairman Ben Fisher, his son and Vice Chairman Peter Fisher and he President of Kent Chemical U. S. Angela Peers. Throughout great parts of the 20th century, Kips operations and sales remained mainly focused on the united States. We will write a custom essay sample on Solution HBS Case Study Kent Chemical or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page By the end of the century, in the year 1 999, only 1 1 % of KCs total revenues came through exports from outside the IS. S. , licensing agreements and minority Joint Ventures (Jobs). From the year 1 998, initiated by its newly appointed CEO Ben Fisher, the company began to pursue a more global strategy to stimulate further growth and thus wanted to become a company that develops, manufactures, and sells worldwide (Bartlett Wining, 201 2, p. 3) by increasing its international alignment and global expansion ambitions. As a result of Kbps new strategy, reinforced by the overall globalization tendency of the world economy, the companys international sales as a proportion of total sales had climbed to 25% in 2007, where most progress in expanding international sales had been made until the year 2004. After Morale began implementing the global integration strategy by taking majority interests in Kips offshore Jobs, acquiring further foreign companies and generally intensifying international manufacturing ND sales, he was facing various problems. His most obvious problem was that Kbps international sales and income and thus overall firm growth have plateau, since Kips international business has been the main driver for its overall firm growth. However, since 2004 only little progress has been made in expanding international sales. The company has only grown moderately at a much lower rate in the recent years after 2004, profit margins have declined and ICP has even shrunken in terms of sales volume after 2006. The reason for the decline in Kens profitability in the recent years, especially between he years 2006 and 2007, is the sharp increase in manufacturing costs, while sales volume has increased only moderately. This is probably a first impact of the impending global recession that is an additional external problem Morale and his company are facing and that piles the pressure on him to find a fast and sustainable organizational solution to set up the company for tough years to come. This urgent need for an organizational change leads to the heart of Kens problem, which is one of organizational structure and hence certainly the main reason restraining Kips further growth. In detail, Kent definitely suffers from its inability to adequately coordinate its businesses due to its misbranded organizational set-up. Therefore both: in terms of the structure of Kens international organization KC and especially the organizational linkages between the domestic and overseas divisions, withholding the company from adequately coordinating issues with global implications. In addition to these problems regarding Kens overall organizational structure and organizational linkages, there are also the more intangible continuing problems of poor relations and communication teens the domestic-based business and the international subsidiaries. These manifest themselves as several facts: First of all, the U. S. -based organization failed to adapt demands for change, second, the U. S. -based business divisions have been unwilling to grant any autonomy to the international divisions and third the international subsidiaries, having a long history of independence, reacted to such treatment by resisting to being controlled and or managed by the domestic-based business divisions. These problems Luis Morale faces as the President of KC when he began pursuing n international expansion strategy. In the chapter 2, the problems will become investigated more detailed to show where the different causes for unsuccessful organizational changes come from. The strategies used are closely related to the theoretical coordination / configuration framework (Porter, 1 986) and also in conformity with empirical evidence according to a current McKinney study (Gibbs et al. , 2012). Both stated that organizations get more difficult and complicated to manage once they pursue global growth and thus become larger, more international and more complex. In detail, it is dated that the two dimensions of configuration and coordination are positively correlated, where configuration comprises where and at what scale primary activities of the firm are conducted and coordination defines to what extent and how these activities need to be coordinated (Porter, 1986). The relationship between these two variables is exactly what the case of Kent Chemical Products shows and corresponds to the fundamental organizational challenge lying ahead of ICP. . 2 Link of Kips Strategy to Porters Generic Strategies Porters framework of generic strategies include three different approaches a firm can follow in order to be successful. Those are named cost leadership, differentiation and focus. The differentiation strategy, according to Porter, requires special skills and resources such as strong marketing abilities, product engineering, creativity and a corporate reputation for quality or technological leadership. Furthermore, Porter stated that companies following the differentiation strategy pursue to attract highly skilled labor, scientists, or creative people. According to the stated definition, Kips chosen strategy can be linked best to this theory amongst the Porters three generic tragedies, since ICP is a chemical company, following a scientific approach strongly engaged in product engineering and RD and thus relying on its strong reputation for quality and technological leadership. A tailored marketing and above all highly skilled and creative employees are also key success factors. However, following a strict cost leadership strategy or even partly (with reference to the focus strategy), would never be viable for a firm operating in this extremely capital demanding chemical/technology industry, carrying a huge responsibility due to the nature of its products and being giggly dependent on its high RD expenditures. 1. 3 A Suitable Vision for ICP and KC Following a potential vision conceivable for the companies ICP and KC: We are the worldwide technological leader in the chemical industry. Our customers view Kent Chemical as their partner of choice. Our highly innovative products and intelligent solutions make us the most competent global supplier in the chemical industry. We generate a high return on our assets, while we strive for sustainable development and aim for making peoples lives better, safer, and healthier. We, the employees of Kent Chemical, welcome change as an opportunity and together ensure our success. 1. 4 Kens Fundamental Organizational Challenge Kips fundamental organizational challenge is to cope with its transition from a domestic-oriented organizational structure to a truly multinational structure. Relating to Daft (2007), pointing exactly this process of firm development, he argues that organizations typically transit from domestic- oriented to global organizations following certain stages. It defines four different stages of organizational development. Stage one is labeled the mystic stage, in which the company is highly domestic-focused with few initial foreign activity through export. The second stage is the international stage of an organization, wherein companies pursue an export-oriented multi-domestic strategic orientation. In this stage, the company typically establishes something like an international division instead of having just an export department and hence competitive issues in each country are now independent of other countries. Stage three is called the multinational stage, wherein the company has made extensive experience in several international arrests, maintains manufacturing, Research and Development, and marketing units in a number of countries and probably of utmost importance, obtains a huge percentage of total reeve uses from sales outside its home country. In the fourth and final stage of organizational development, named the global Stage the companys strategic orientation is absolutely global, covering any single country and its organizational structure is that of a transnational matrix. Therefore corporations in the fourth, global stage such as global players like Nestle, Enhances-Busch Ellen or Procter Gamble no anger associate themselves with any domestic country. When Kbps CEO and Chairman Ben Fisher announced in 1998 the companys international expansion strategy, he attempted to progress to the third, so called multinational stage. However, ICP currently appears to still stuck in the shift from stage two, the international stage, to stage three, the multinational stage. As the development of Kens foreign-to-total-sales ratio and thus the growing importance of its international segment shows, some considerable progress in Kens internationalization has been made. Nevertheless it is obvious that ICP has not yet successfully made the structural transition from the international to the multinational stage of an organization, which will be Kips fundamental key challenge for years to come. Even though the firms CEO Ben Fisher established KC as a separate corporate entity within the Kent Chemical group, effectively KC is not acting as more than an international division (second stage) bound into a still predominantly domestic-oriented company. There is still only poor coordination and communication but a lot of conflict between the U. S. -based and oversea divisions, which should be poised urgently. In order to finally realize the transition to the multinational stage and to generate further growth through increasing international sales, it will be of utmost importance for Morale and the other executives to abolish the existing lack of coordination on issues with global implication in order to be able to coordinate price, product, or sourcing decisions globally. Furthermore Kips strong domestic orientation needs to become given up to provide the international subsidiaries with more autonomy and scope for decision-making and use their specific knowledge to tailor Kips products and racketing efforts to the individual demands and needs in the different countries. 1. 5 Task Analysis and Role Assignment Luis Morale as the President of KC, Kens international subsidiary, assisted by the implemented Gabs, bears the brunt of finally ensuring more coordination and integration within the Kent group. Morale saw the integration failure mainly as a failure in conflict management, while in retrospect there is no doubt that the assignment of roles and tasks thus far was a major reason for the failure of Silks integration process. While Morale hoped the global business directors (KGB) for each product division would unction as an integrator between Keens domestic and international divisions, implementing the Gabs did not help to integrate KC at all. Besides the problems concerning role assignment especially with focus on heritage and regional expert knowledge (more detailed explained in part 2), also mistakes have been made in setting the individual tasks within the integration process. Morale definitely failed in defining the tasks of the Gabs sufficiently, so they defined them for themselves, what in combination with their overall U. S. Soused attitude were doomed to failure. With all this in mind, it was also a ajar flaw to make the Gabs the chairs of the subsequently established world boards, since their acceptance and reputation has been damaged in both the domestic and the international organizations. As first but vital steps to solve these problems regarding the role and task assignment, Morale supported by Peter Fisher should put together a mix of U. S. VSP and foreign- based managers in key roles, like the KGB-positions and define their roles in detail such that regional managers are enabled to obtain extensive authorit y over their operations. This includes also country-specifically tailored racketing and technology control while the Gabs should strongly concentrate on integration tasks and act more as an intermediate between the domestic and international organization instead of trying to gain or maintain control over the operative activities of the firm. . 6 Why These Problems Emerged Now and not Earlier in the asses Morale has begun implementing an international expansion strategy in 1998/1999 (and not earlier) by taking majority interests in offshore Jobs and subsidiaries, that caused more control and responsibility for KC and a significant growth in overseas operations and sales. According to the introduction of coordination/ configuration after Porter and the compatible empirical study by Gibbs et al. It lead to a stronger need for more coordination and integration of the firms international divisions and also on a product basis, since the new amount of requests were not longer feasible by M orale alone as Silks principal top-level contact. In addition to this development, there has also been the global economic recession that began in 2007/08 and piled the pressure for Serfs organizational restructuring to keep the firm profitable and shelter it from uncial distress. 2 Unsuccessful Responses 2. 1 Changes Morale Made 2. 1. The KGB concept The first major reorganization in 2006 started with the announcement of Angela Peers as the new president for the U. S. Businesses of Kent Chemical Products and Peter Fisher as vice chairman with responsibility for all corporate staffs and the international operations. Furthermore, Kent Chemical International became a separate legal entity structured as subsidiary of ICP. In the same year, Luis Morale started the first organizational change new structure by the appointment of three new so allied Global Business Director (KGB) with responsibilities for each of the three product lines. Because of several reasons, in sum the restructuring failed: First of all, all three appointed Gabs were managers with a long career in the united States and it is not stated that they have some experiences working in a foreign country or culture -which is only suboptimal for the target to extend the international business. This overall goal requires multinational influences and thinking to support empathy and social skills coming from working in several areas and regions. Secondly, an issue that name along with the implementation of the new roles was the missing initial definition of the role of Gabs tasks, goals and responsibilities that would have strengthen the position in order to mandate decisions affecting other top- level managers. This could ensure acceptance and freedom to act only by the measure that would cause a ratification of Gabs actions and competencies. Furthermore the necessary interfaces and collaboration links have not been established in the first place which leads to the result of ignorance how to work together with Gabs from other managers point of view. One advantage of the newly established concept was the newly diversified view of the direct- reports to Morale. This comes from the situation of different views to the issues caused by the circumstance that Morale had the opportunity of regional directors focusing mostly on the local issues on the one hand and Gabs focusing a bit more on products on the other hand. So in fact, all disciplines were set but to make it successful, the right connection to domestic managers and disciplines are missing to ensure a product and market focus within the KC leadership team. But this potential advantage as only the theory where little successes could have been found in case of a right definition and implementation of the concept. The organization chart from 2006 offers several drawbacks like the fact, that Gabs Were not real vice-presidents (which are per definition people reporting directly to the president / vice chairman). The Gabs reported in first instance to Morale as president of the separate legal entity KC and in consequence of that, the product division mangers did not really respect and accepted the Gabs as equals. Furthermore the regional director for MEME (Europe, Middle East and Africa) saw them only as a burden that requires more organizational resources and time to align and coordinate. Last but not least, the clear definition of Gabs targets and goals was missing which lead to the behavior known from neo classical economy theory of principal agent problem (Ross, 1973), where hidden agendas and actions of one individual causes loss of performance -? in the case of KC it is caused by asymmetric information between other established managers agents) who feared the loss of competencies and power in their area of responsibility and the newly established Gabs (principals). 1. 2 World Boards Due to the unsuccessful first organizational change by introduction of KGB concept, Peter Fisher had the idea to implement another change to correct the KGB concept and optimize the organizational issues. This lead to the deployment of so called world boards in the year 2007 with the goal to support Gabs with their target to improve international activities of KC. These worl d boards should be composed of representatives from domestic and international organizations on the one hand and different product and functional areas on the other hand. For each of the companys global genuineness fire protection, medical plastics and consumer products, a world board was formed. At the presentation Of this concept, Fisher showed also the updated role of Gabs and overall tasks of the world boards. Also this change was no huge success. Only the fire protection world board performed well and met the stated objectives. A reason for this was the internationality of the fire production product ranges itself because the opportunities, risks and other topics had global implications that made it easy to discuss on a worldwide level without micro discussions about local specialties. Another success factor was the internal organization of the fire protection world board where the KGB who served as board chair, discussed all relevant topics and issues with the domestic division vice president before the official world board meeting to avoid plasticization of the discussions. The other two world boards have been unsuccessful which leads to the result that all in all this organizational change was also a fall. Diverse factors like the big size and huge number of participants in the world board meetings and also a lack of support from key domestic managers. Reason for this was the fear to give up rower or the endeavor to enter the next career step and manage international activities on in their responsibility. Furthermore, the status of the Gabs was not the best resulting from the fail of the first organizational change that led to a lack of reputation in combination with the impression of some managers that the top leaders tried to give Gabs more power to establish them now by force after failing in the first try. So all in all, both organizational changes failed. The ideas itself were not bad but the implementation was a disaster -? starting from communication and alignment before the changes, selection of the key people, definition of their role and communication of cooperation models that were all done only halfway. 2. 2 General Options for Organizational Design of Kent Chemical Referring to the five traditional organizational structures of Pearce and Robinson (Pearce and Robinson 2009, p. 45): simple, functional, divisional, matrix and product- team organizational structure, there are several opportunities to set a structure for Kent that would support the overall goal of international growth. In consequence, the matrix organ sectional structure (with some adoptions to Keens preferences) could fit best, because it is an organization in which functional and staff personnel are assigned to both a basic functional area and to a project or product manager. It provides dual channels of authority, performance, responsibility, evaluation, and control The matrix form is intended to make the best use of talented people within a firm by combining the advantages of functional specialization and product-project specialization. In the specific case and with respect of the specific requirements of Kent Chemical International, it could make sense to establish his organizational structure both to ensure clear focus on the product range and also the region with equal weights. This could have several advantages like an uniform authority level of managers with different areas of responsibility. Furthermore it ensures the link to the corresponding product division managers and functional areas on corporate level. Next to this approach focusing only on changes within Kent Chemical International, another way to optimize the organizational design is the integration of the separate legal entity KC that deals with the international business and ranges the responsibility for regional issues also to the product division managers who then diversify their organization after regions. This has the advantage that on the one hand, specialties of the individual product ranges are taken into account by the possibility to adapt the division to the special requirements and on the other hand, the existing vice presidents can stay in their position avoiding power struggles, plasticization or double reporting within the organization. 2. 3 Could the KGB Concept Have Worked? In general, the concept of global business directors could have worked with he limitation that several changes starting from concept development, alignment, selection of key people and resources until implementation of this new organizational concept must have been considered more intensively. But it could not work in the way it was done by Morale in 2006. Some tools and approaches can be useful to optimize the organizational change. First of all, a very easy and also useful tool of chance management can become used- a discussion and preliminary alignment with other managers and especially the president and vice president to gain backing, collect other Opinions and abbey detect some shortcomings. Next to this step and the final conception of the change, the change management tools of a detailed project implementation structure, working packages, detailed goals for each step and manager and also factors to evaluate the success / failure later must become defined. Furthermore, the steps before the appointment and communication of the new directors are very important. These include a clear definition of the role, responsibilities and reporting streams for Gabs and also a presentation of the strategy to other managers to unify and clarify why the many decided to take these steps. These actions require the uncovering of shortcomings, the overall formulation of goals and especially how this concept targets company long term focus. Furthermore it is inevitable to show also personal benefits for the managers. Secondly, the selection of the three Gabs must be strategically with respect of the overall goal of international growth. Therefore the managers itself must also have an international background which was not ensured by initial implementation because Morale appointed three global business directors (Gabs), each with long, successful U. S. Career (Bartlett Wining, 2012, p. 5). Next to the origin, competence levels must be at maximum to gain acceptance of colleagues and especially critical opponents. This could be done via the change management tool used in the Change-process Control phase that requires some personal interviews with human resources department, other managers and long-time colleagues knowing the person and his strengths and weaknesses. Last but not least, another step that would have improved the KGB concept implementation is a accompanied announcement and communication Of the hang, presentation of the directors and the hoped-for goals to be achieved. 3 Sterling Partners Recommendations 3. New Management Challenges As international sales started becoming an increasing proportion of Kent Chemicals total revenue (from 11% in 1998 to 25% in 2007), a more strategic approach to the international market was necessary. Since 2004 the process seemed to stagnate despite two reorganization efforts. One of them was the introduction of Global Business Directors (Gabs) on a UP-level and the second attempt to overcome the challenge of integrating KC with ICP was he incorporatio n of World Boards. Unfortunately, both strategies brought little to no improvement regarding communication and coordination between the domestic and international business units. The main problem seems to be the companys organizational structure. The internal organization is insufficient and outdated since the company is growing and becoming more and more international. Also, the linkage to the international subsidiaries obviously does not work. In addition, there is an imminent global recession that already had an impact on Kens earnings but might impose an even ore serious thread if the management will not be able to find an organizational fix. Looking at the companys recent history, We can State that Kent Chemical is an international but not a multinational company yet, bundling the informational flow through the U. S. Headquarter and preferring to fill key-positions with American managers. Even with KC becoming a separate legal entity, the division continued functioning more like an international division in a heavily domestically oriented firm. Further efforts of intergeneration included taking majority interests in all 15 of Kent Chemicals offshore join ventures and the mentioned introduction of Global Business Directors (Gabs) and World Boards. Neither the general relations, nor the communication or the coordination between the domestic entity and the overseas subsidiaries improved. The first reason for that was the U. S. Based headquarters failure to adjust to new systems and demands. The second reason was the international subsidiaries unwillingness of cooperating with or being managed by the companys U. S. Headquarters. The resistance was probably caused by the abduction of the international visions autonomy.